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There are few aspects of U.S. antitrust law as seemingly well settled as Illinois Brick’s “indirect purchaser rule.” The rule itself — indirect purchasers may not recover damages under federal antitrust laws — is about as straightforward as they come; there are only a few exceptions, and courts have adhered to the U.S. Supreme Court’s instruction that these exceptions not be freely expanded or multiplied. If antitrust has any load-bearing doctrinal pillars, then Illinois Brick is surely among them.

But here is a not-entirely-settled question about Illinois Brick: To what extent does it apply to claims based on conduct occurring in foreign commerce? Part of the answer is easy: As an interpretation of the Clayton Act, Illinois Brick undisputedly applies to bar federal indirect purchaser claims based on foreign conduct. But does it also bar such claims when brought under state laws?

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